Lifecycle Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts

A Life-Cycle Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Based Ethanol
ICF (for U.S. Department of Agriculture)
January 2017 – View PDF

Review of John DeCicco et al. Article titled “Carbon balance effects of U.S. biofuel production and use”
Steffen Mueller, PhD; University of Illinois at Chicago Energy Resources Center
September 6, 2016 – View PDF

Re-Examining Corn Ethanol’s Energy Balance Ratio
Renewable Fuels Association
March 2016 – View PDF

2015 Energy Balance for the Corn-Ethanol Industry
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Office of the Chief Economist
February 2016 – View PDF

GHG Emissions Reductions Due to the RFS2
Boland, S., and S. Unnasch, Life Cycle Associates, LLC (for Renewable Fuels Association)
November 2015 – View PDF

GHG Emission Reductions from World Biofuel Production and Use – 2015
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. (for Global Renewable Fuels Alliance)
November 26, 2015 – View PDF

Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels
Han, J., Elgowainy, A., and Wang, M., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
July-2015 – View PDF

Comments on “Ethanol’s Broken Promise” by the Environmental Working Group
Wang, M., J. Dunn, & S. Mueller, Argonne National Laboratory
June 12, 2014 – View PDF

Carbon Intensity of Marginal Petroleum and Corn Ethanol Fuels
Boland, S., and S. Unnasch, Life Cycle Associates, LLC (for Renewable Fuels Association)
January 2014 – View Full Report PDFView Appendix PDF View RFA Summary PDF

2012 Corn Ethanol: Emerging Plant Energy and Environmental Technologies
Mueller, S., University of Illinois at Chicago & Kwik , J., Dominion Energy Services, LLC
April 29, 2013 – View PDF

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use
Wang, M., et al., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
December 13, 2012 – View PDF

Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production
Parish, E.S. et al., U.S. DOE-Oak Ridge National Laboratory
December 2, 2012 – Visit Site

Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes
Wang, M.Q., et al., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory, U.S. DOE, & Purdue University
May 2012 – Visit Site | Publication available for purchase

Securing Foreign Oil: A Case for Including Military Operations in the Climate Change Impact of Fuels
Liska, A.J., and Perrin, R.K., University of Nebraska at Lincoln
July/August 2010 – View PDF

Discussion Paper – A Comparison of Corn Ethanol Lifecycle Analyses: California Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) Versus Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2)
Air Improvement Resource, Inc. (for Renewable Fuels Association & Nebraska Corn Board)
June 14, 2010 – View PDF

2008 Energy Balance for the Corn-Ethanol Industry
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Office of the Chief Economist
June 2010 – View PDF

Detailed Report: 2008 National Dry Mill Corn Ethanol Survey
Mueller, S., University of Illinois at Chicago
May 4, 2010 – View PDF

GHG Emission Reductions From World Biofuel Production And Use
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc. (for Global Renewable Fuels Alliance)
November 23, 2009 – View PDF

What Do Biofuels Displace and Why Does it Matter?
Renewable Fuels Association
July 8, 2009 – View PDF

An Evaluation of the Extraction, Transport and Refining of Imported Crude Oils and the Impact on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions
U.S. DOE-National Energy Technology Laboratory
March 27, 2009 – View PDF

An Examination of the Potential for Improving Carbon/Energy Balance of Bioethanol (A Report to IEA Bioenergy Task 39)
(S&T)2 Consultants Inc.
February 15, 2009 – View PDF

Assessment of Direct and Indirect GHG Emissions Associated with Petroleum Fuels
Life Cycle Associates, LLC (for New Fuels Alliance)
February 2009 – View PDF

Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol
Liska, A.J., et al., University of Nebraska at Lincoln
December 2008 – View PDF

Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach
Hettinga, W.G., et al., Utrecht University, Ecofys Netherlands BV, & U.S. Department of Agriculture
September 30, 2008 – View PDF

Update of Distillers Grains Displacement Ratios for Corn Ethanol Life-Cycle Analysis
Arora, S., Wu, M., and Wang, M., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
September 2008 – Visit Site

U.S. Ethanol Industry Efficiency Improvements 2004 through 2007
Christianson, J.O., Christianson & Associates, PLLP
August 5, 2008 – View PDF

Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007
U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory (for Renewable Fuels Association)
March 27, 2008 – View PDF

Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types
Wang, M., Wu, M., & Huo, H., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
May 22, 2007 – View PDF

Ethanol: Energy Well Spent – A Survey of Studies Published Since 1990
Natural Resources Defense Council and Climate Solutions
February 7, 2006 – View PDF

Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals
Farrell, A.E., et al., University of California at Berkeley
January 27, 2006 – View PDF

USDA’s 2002 Ethanol Cost-of-Production Survey
Shapouri, H., and Gallagher, P., USDA-Office of the Chief Economist
July 2005 – View PDF

The 2001 Net Energy Balance of Corn-Ethanol
Shapouri, H., Duffield, J., McAloon, A., & Wang, M., USDA-Office of the Chief Economist & U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
May 31, 2004 – View PDF

Land Use Impacts

Understanding the revised land use changes and greenhouse gas emissions induced by biofuels
Gohin, A., SMART – LERECO
September 2015 – View PDF

Response to Environmental Research Letters article, “Cropland expansion outpaces agricultural and biofuel policies in the United States” (Lark et al.)
Dunn, J. et al., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago & U.S. DOE-Oak Ridge National Laboratory
April 29, 2015 – View PDF

Using Recent Land Use Changes to Validate Land Use Change Models
Babcock, B.A., and Iqbal, Z., Iowa State University
View PDF

Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization
Mumm, R.H., Goldsmith, P.D., Rausch, K.D., and Stein, H.H., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
April 2014 – View PDF

A Spatial Modeling Framework to Evaluate Domestic Biofuel-Induced Potential Land Use Changes and Emissions
Elliott, J., et al., University of Chicago, U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory, Iowa State University & University of Illinois at Chicago
January 23, 2014 – View PDF

Analysing the Effect of Biofuel Expansion on Land Use in Major Producing Countries: Evidence of Increased Multiple Cropping
Langeveld, J.W.A, Dixon, J., van Keulen, H., and Quist-Wessel, P.M.F., Biomass Research, ACIAR, & Wageningen University and Research Centre (for Biomass Research)
July 2013 – VIEW SITE

Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production
Kwon, H.-Y., Mueller, S., Dunn, J.B., and Wander, M.M., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Illinois at Chicago, and U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
March 2013 – VIEW SITE

Land-Use Changes and CO2 Emissions Due to US Corn Ethanol Production
Tyner, W., & Taheripour, F., Purdue University
January 2013 – View PDF | Publication available for purchase

An alternative approach to indirect land use change: Allocating greenhouse gas effects among different uses of land
Kim, S., Dale, B.E., & Ong, R.G., Michigan State University & U.S. DOE-Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
November 2012 – View PDF | Publication available for purchase

Baseline time accounting: Considering global land use dynamics when estimating the climate impact of indirect land use change caused by biofuels
Kløverpris, J.H., Novozymes A/S, & Mueller, S., University of Illinois at Chicago
September 11, 2012 – View PDF

Induced land use emissions due to first and second generation biofuels and uncertainty in land use emissions factors
Taheripour, F. & Tyner, W.E., Purdue University
August 12, 2012 – View PDF

Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB): Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation
Mueller, S., Dunn, J.B., & Wang, M. Q., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
June 11, 2012 – View PDF

Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007
Nickerson, C., Ebel, R., Borchers, A., & Carriazo, F., USDA-Economic Research Service
December 2011 – View PDF

Assessing the Land Use Change Consequences of European Biofuel Policies, Final Report
Laborde, D., International Food Policy Institute (IFPRI)
October 2011 – View PDF

Indirect land use change for biofuels: Testing predictions and improving analytical methodologies
Kim, S., & Dale, B.E., Michigan State University
July 2011 – View PDF

Sources of corn for ethanol production in the United States: a decomposition analysis of the empirical data
Oladosu, G., Kline, K., Uria-Martinez, R., & Eaton, L., U.S. DOE-Oak Ridge National Laboratory – June 10, 2011 View PDF | Publication available for purchase

Effect of Recent Expert Working Group Recommendations on California Low Carbon Fuels Standard (LCFS) Corn Ethanol Land Use Change Emissions Estimate
Air Improvement Resource, Inc.
October 29, 2010 – View PDF

Biofuels Done Right: Land Efficient Animal Feeds Enable Large Environmental and Energy Benefits
Dale, B.E., Bals, B.D., Kim, S., & Franki, P., Michigan State University
September 14, 2010 – View PDF

Land Use Changes and Consequent CO2 Emissions due to US Corn Ethanol Production: A Comprehensive Analysis, Final Report (revised)
Tyner, W. et al., Purdue University
July 2010 – View PDF

Indirect Land Use: One Consideration Too Many in Biofuel Regulation
Zilberman, D., Hochman, G., & Rajagopal, D., University of California at Berkeley
March/April 2010 – View PDF

Review of “Corn Ethanol and Wildlife: How increases in corn plantings are affecting habitat and wildlife in the Prairie Pothole Region” (Brooke et al. for the National Wildlife Federation)
Renewable Fuels Association
January 19, 2010 – View PDF

Biofuels and their by-products: Global economic and environmental implications
Taheripour, F., et al., Purdue University
November 27, 2009 – View PDF

A Scientific Assessment of the Role of Distiller’s Grains (DGS) and Predictions of the Impact of Corn Co-Products Produced by Front-End Fractionation and Back-End Oil Extraction
Shurson, J., University of Minnesota
September 10, 2009 – View PDF

Calculating Carbon Intensity: Implications of Projection Horizon and Future Land Use
NERA Economic Consulting (for Renewable Fuels Association)
April 30, 2009 – View PDF

Biofuels and indirect land use change effects: the debate continues
Matthews, J.A., and Tan, H., Macquarie University
April 13, 2009 – View PDF

Analysis of “Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use” (Howarth et al., published by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment)
Renewable Fuels Association
April 2, 2009 – View PDF

Accounting for Differences in the Timing of Emissions in Calculating Carbon Intensity for the California Low Carbon Fuels Standard
NERA Economic Consulting (for Renewable Fuels Association)
April 2009 – View PDF

Analysis of Current Feeding Practices of Distiller’s Grains with Solubles in Livestock and Poultry Feed Relative to Land Use Credits Associated with Determining the Low Carbon Fuel
Shurson, J., University of Minnesota
March 25, 2009 – View PDF

Indirect land use emissions in the life cycle of biofuels: regulations vs science
Liska, A.J., and Perrin, R.K., University of Nebraska at Lincoln
March 19, 2009 – View PDF

Land Use Effects of U.S. Corn-Based Ethanol
Darlington, T.L., Air Improvement Resource, Inc.
February 24, 2009 – View PDF

Biofuels, Land Use Change, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Some Unexplored Variables
Kim, H., Kim, S., & Dale, B.E., Phillips Academy Andover & Michigan State University
November 20, 2008 – View PDF

Understanding Land Use Change and U.S. Ethanol Expansion
Renewable Fuels Association
November 2008 – View PDF

Letter to Sciencexpress in response to “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land Use Change” (Searchinger et al.)
Wang, M., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory & Haq, Z., U.S. Department of Energy
March 14, 2008 – View PDF

Human Health & Air Quality

Evaluation of Ethanol Fuel Blends in EPA MOVES2014
Wyle Laboratories & Volpe National Transportation Systems Center
Jan 2016 – View PDF

Change in Air Quality Impacts Associated with the Use of E15 Blends Instead of E10
Unnasch, S. and Henderson, A., Life Cycle Associates, LLC
July-2014 – View PDF

Public health impacts of secondary particulate formation from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline
von Stackelberg, K., Buonocore, J., Bhave, P.V., and Schwartz, J.A., Harvard University
February 20, 2013 – View PDF

Life Cycle Impact Assessment Framework for Characterizing Human Health Benefits and Impacts from Emerging Biofuels
Lobscheid, A.B., Energy Biosciences Institute, and McKone, T.E., U.S. DOE-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & University of California at Berkeley
May 5, 2009 – View PDF

Response to Mark Jacobson E85 Study
Renewable Energy Action Project (REAP)
April 26, 2007 – View PDF

Review of “Effects of Ethanol (E85) Versus Gasoline Vehicles on Cancer and Mortality in the United States” authored by Mark Z. Jacobson
Whitten, G.Z., Smog Reyes
April 18, 2007 – View PDF

Air Quality and Ethanol in Gasoline
Whitten, G.Z., Smog Reyes
February 4, 2004 – View PDF

Small-Volume Releases of Gasoline in the Vadose Zone: Impact of the Additives MTBE and Ethanol on Groundwater Quality
Dakhel, N., Pasteris, G., Werner, D., & Höhener, P., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne
April 10, 2003 – View PDF | Publication available for purchase

Sustainability

Agricultural Productivity Growth in the United States: Measurement, Trends, and Drivers
Wang, S.L., Heisey, P., Schimmelpfennig, D., and Ball, E., U.S. Department of Agriculture
July-2015 – View PDF

Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators for Measuring Outcomes of On-Farm Agricultural Production in the United States: Second Report (Version 2)
Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture
December 2012 – View PDF

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use
Wang, M., et al., U.S. DOE-Argonne National Laboratory
December 13, 2012 – View PDF

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry
U.S. DOE-Oak Ridge National Laboratory
August 2011 – View PDF

Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification
Burney, J.A., Davis, S.J., & Lobell, D.B., Stanford University and Carnegie Institution of Washington
May 4, 2010 – View PDF

Environmental Resource Indicators for Measuring Outcomes of On-Farm Agricultural Production in the United States: First Report
Field to Market: The Keystone Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture
January 2009 – View PDF

Increasing Crop Productivity to Meet Global Needs for Feed, Food, and Fuel
Edgerton, M.D., Monsanto Co.
January 2009 – View PDF

Water Use

The Facts on Ethanol, Corn Production, and Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico
Renewable Fuels Association
July 7, 2010 – View PDF

Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Corn-based Ethanol Plants
Ahmetović, E., Martin, M., and Grossmann, I.E., Carnegie Mellon University
January 2010 – View PDF

Water Usage for Current and Future Ethanol Production
Aden, A., U.S. DOE-National Renewable Energy Laboratory
September/October 2007 – View PDF